Minimum size for the detection of pedestrians on a display of camera-monitor systems in a mobile machinery considering realistic manoeuvring conditions [PePaKMS]

Project No. FF-FP 0472




Camera-monitor systems (CMS) are used to reduce the risk in danger zones of mobile machines where machine and vehicle operators do not have sufficient visibility. Minimum heights of details on CMS are specified by international standards. However, specifications do not consider real working environments. As reported in the literature, requirements for heights are too low, increasing risks when working with CMS.

The project aims to empirically determine image height of objects (persons) displayed on CMS, which are necessary for a safe detection of objects under realistic working conditions. The hypothesis that minimum image height specified in standards is too low will also be investigated.


Relevant application scenarios and driving manoeuvres will be selected by literature analyses and expert panels (e.g. with German Social Accident Insurance Institution, German Social Accident Insurance, manufacturers, operators, employees) before development and implementation for simulation. Thereafter, required image heights for safe detection of objects on CMS are investigated by means of experimental-empirical studies in the laboratory, in simulation and in the field on mobile machine operations. Field studies are conducted in various real-life application scenarios and used to validate findings from simulations.

Last Update:

11 Aug 2022


Financed by:
  • Deutsche Gesetzliche Unfallversicherung e. V. (DGUV)
Research institution(s):
  • Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule ETH Zürich

construction industry

Type of hazard:

design of work and technology


prevention, accident prevention, man-machine interface

Description, key words:

display, camera-monitor-system, mobile machinery